Censorship -- the control of the information and ideas circulated within a society -- has been a hallmark of dictatorships throughout history. In the 20th Century, censorship was achieved through the examination of books, plays, films, television and radio programs, news reports, and other forms of communication for the purpose of altering or suppressing ideas found to be objectionable or offensive. The rationales for censorship have varied, with some censors targeting material deemed to be indecent or obscene; heretical or blasphemous; or seditious or treasonous. Thus, ideas have been suppressed under the guise of protecting three basic social institutions:
Thanks to archivists who've retrieved WPA documents from warehouses and garbage Censorship in radio essay, and to Federal One veterans who've produced memoirs and analyses, the projects are extensively documented.
There are plenty of anecdotes illustrating the insensitivity of bureaucrats, the clumsiness of politicians' interventions, the attacks of censors and the perils of centralized control.
Federal One didn't effect a complete transformation of the cultural landscape; when it was over, cultural production and distribution returned to something very much like the patterns they had taken earlier. It has been argued that the projects served as pacifiers, containing a potentially radical and threatening artists' movement by converting it to a form of government service.
But Federal One cannot be written off as hopelessly flawed.
It might be argued that for the narratives of former slaves alone -- for first-person accounts of this pivotal experience in the history of the U. The FTP served as a laboratory for theatrical forms, some of which still seem fresh and new today.
Federal One created opportunities for artists who would have had the greatest difficulties sustaining their work otherwise; and for thousands of people who might never have been able to paint or write or attend live theater themselves. Though these Federal One projects were mandated nationally, they were conceived with local cultural situations in mind.
The regional and oral history collections compiled by the Federal Writers Project, the music and art projects' composers and design indexes -- these and many WPA initiatives documented a past that the private sector had neither the interest nor the resources to preserve -- neither in the '30s nor today.
Special emphasis was placed on preserving and promoting minority cultural forms. So, for example, black theater companies were established in Birmingham, Boston, Chicago, Hartford, Los Angeles, New York, Newark, Philadelphia, Raleigh, San Francisco and Seattle -- all places where economic and social conditions had made it impossible for black theater to exist outside of the fast-disappearing vaudeville stage.
Similarly, foreign language companies performed works in French, German, Italian, Spanish and Yiddish; though eager audiences existed for these productions, mounting them for profit had become impossible. In short, the New Deal cultural projects took responsibility for our cultural commonwealth.
They took on the task of recording history -- including many parts otherwise deemed too painful or embarrassing to mention. More than that, they strove to promote cultural life where private action had failed or even done it positive harm.
Within the large, centrally-directed frameworks of Federal One projects, considerable allowance was made for regional differences.
The Oklahoma Federal Theatre was a case in point. Oklahoma had few theater professionals, so they had to be used wisely and fully by state directors.
The Oklahoma theater project established a service bureau which "ultimately furnished plays, radio scripts, or dramatic source material to over dramatic clubs in educational institutions.
The playwright's group expanded to include 66 young writers. It also ran a theater for the blind; ten recreation centers serving both black and white communities; and the Vagabond Puppeteers, which toured Civilian Conservation Corps camps.
Designed in consultation with artists' unions, commercial producers and other arts community leaders, Federal One projects made possible work that was acknowledged as important but impossible to undertake in existing private settings.
In many cases, this placed the federal government in the role of taking risks for private entrepreneurs no longer willing or able to gamble on new material.
The Federal Theatre Project, for example, set up a "try-out" theater in New York City to assess the potential of new material for commercial production: The Theatre Project introduced important formal innovations.
The "Living Newspaper" is perhaps the best-known of these, emerging as the hallmark of the FTP's work. The material they gathered was transformed into a new form of documentary theater -- large-cast, multimedia productions, innovatively staged.— Jacob Bacharach (@jakebackpack) July 24, So, Trump's incompetence may be used to increase voter disaffection with the Republicans without increasing voter affection for the Democrats at all.
The first copyright law was a censorship law. It was not about protecting the rights of authors, or encouraging them to produce new works. Authors' rights were in little danger in sixteenth-century England, and the recent arrival of the printing press (the world's first copying machine) was if anything energizing to writers.
George Orwell was the pseudonym of English author Eric Arthur Blair, born in in Bengal, where his father worked for the Opium Department of the Government of India. - American Censorship of Japanese Animation Abrstract: This essay will explore why Americans feel the need to censor Japanese Animation, how the Japanese culture differs from American culture, and how to solve the growing debate of the censorship of Japanese media.
The Japanese media presents some startling differences when compared with the press in other leading industrial countries of the world. This can be done by providing too much information!
Schechter gives an example of the Kosovo War, where briefers at NATO’s headquarters in Belgium boasted that this was the key to information benjaminpohle.com would gorge the media with information, Beelman writes, quoting one as saying, When you make the media happy, the media will not look for the rest of the story.