Phenomenology is commonly understood in either of two ways:
Auguste Comte Auguste Comte — first described the epistemological perspective of positivism in The Course in Positive Philosophya series of texts published between and The first three volumes of the Course dealt chiefly with the physical sciences already in existence mathematicsastronomy Positivism and phenominology, physicschemistrybiologywhereas the latter two emphasized the inevitable coming of social science.
Observing the circular dependence of theory and observation in science, and classifying the sciences in this way, Comte may be regarded as the first philosopher of science in the modern sense of the term.
His View of Positivism therefore set out to define the empirical goals of sociological method. This Comte accomplished by taking as the criterion of the position of each the degree of what he called "positivity," which is simply the degree to which the phenomena can be exactly determined.
This, as may be readily seen, is also a measure of their relative complexity, since the exactness of a science is in inverse proportion to its complexity. The degree of exactness or positivity is, moreover, that to which it can be subjected to mathematical demonstration, and therefore mathematics, which is not itself a concrete science, is the general gauge by which the position of every science is to be determined.
Generalizing thus, Comte found that there were five great groups of phenomena of equal classificatory value Positivism and phenominology of successively decreasing positivity. To these he gave the names astronomy, physics, chemistry, biology, and sociology. WardThe Outlines of Sociology Comte offered an account of social evolutionproposing that society undergoes three phases in its quest for the truth according to a general " law of three stages ".
Comte intended to develop a secular-scientific ideology in the wake of European secularisation.
God, Comte says, had reigned supreme over human existence pre- Enlightenment. It dealt with the restrictions put in place by the religious organization at the time and the total acceptance of any "fact" adduced for society to believe. This second phase states that the universal rights of humanity are most important.
The central idea is that humanity is invested with certain rights that must be respected. In this phase, democracies and dictators rose and fell in attempts to maintain the innate rights of humanity. The central idea of this phase is that individual rights are more important than the rule of any one person.
The third principle is most important in the positive stage. Neither the second nor the third phase can be reached without the completion and understanding of the preceding stage. All stages must be completed in progress. Sociology would "lead to the historical consideration of every science" because "the history of one science, including pure political history, would make no sense unless it was attached to the study of the general progress of all of humanity".
The irony of this series of phases is that though Comte attempted to prove that human development has to go through these three stages, it seems that the positivist stage is far from becoming a realization.
This is due to two truths: The positivist phase requires having a complete understanding of the universe and world around us and requires that society should never know if it is in this positivist phase.
Anthony Giddens argues that since humanity constantly uses science to discover and research new things, humanity never progresses beyond the second metaphysical phase.
As an approach to the philosophy of historypositivism was appropriated by historians such as Hippolyte Taine. Debates continue to rage as to how much Comte appropriated from the work of his mentor, Saint-Simon.
For close associate John Stuart Millit was possible to distinguish between a "good Comte" the author of the Course in Positive Philosophy and a "bad Comte" the author of the secular-religious system.
Magnin filled this role from towhen he resigned.
What has been called our positivism is but a consequence of this rationalism. By carefully examining suicide statistics in different police districts, he attempted to demonstrate that Catholic communities have a lower suicide rate than Protestants, something he attributed to social as opposed to individual or psychological causes.
He developed the notion of objective sui generis " social facts " to delineate a unique empirical object for the science of sociology to study.
Durkheim described sociology as the "science of institutionstheir genesis and their functioning". His lifework was fundamental in the establishment of practical social research as we know it today—techniques which continue beyond sociology and form the methodological basis of other social sciencessuch as political scienceas well of market research and other fields.
Antipositivism and Critical theory At the turn of the 20th century, the first wave of German sociologists formally introduced methodological antipositivism, proposing that research should concentrate on human cultural normsvaluessymbolsand social processes viewed from a subjective perspective.
Weber regarded sociology as the study of social actionusing critical analysis and verstehen techniques. Positivism may be espoused by " technocrats " who believe in the inevitability of social progress through science and technology.
Contemporary positivism[ edit ] In the original Comtean usage, the term "positivism" roughly meant the use of scientific methods to uncover the laws according to which both physical and human events occur, while "sociology" was the overarching science that would synthesize all such knowledge for the betterment of society.
Neither of these terms is used any longer in this sense.Phenomenology As Philosophy and Method Applications to Ways of Doing Special Education JEAN C. McPHAIL ABSTRACT some of the central tenets of positivism.
Because the posi-tivist science movement spawned phenomenology and now is seen by many in special education as the conceptual. Essay on Positivism and Phenominology This essay shall begin by Positivism is a well established philosophy within the natural sciences. In the early nineteenth century it became an integral aspect of social science methodology.
In Baconian tradition. Oct 29, · Is positivism or phenomenology the most effective way of approaching the study of poverty? And why?Status: Resolved. Positivism and Phenominology. Topics: Sociology, Positivism was started by Auguste Comte who is regarded to be the first true sociologist, and was also studied and continued by his student Emile Durkheim.
Auguste Comte was born on January 17th He was born in France. Phenomenology (from Greek phainómenon "that which appears" and lógos "study") is the philosophical study of the structures of experience and consciousness.
Phenomenology is the study of structures of consciousness as experienced from the first-person point of view. The central structure of an experience is its intentionality, its being directed toward something, as it is an experience of or about some object.