Psychology and person development theorists

Three primary reflexes are described by Piaget: Over the first six weeks of life, these reflexes begin to become voluntary actions; for example, the palmar reflex becomes intentional grasping. Also at this phase, passive reactions, caused by classical or operant conditioningcan begin [4]. Three new abilities occur at this stage:

Psychology and person development theorists

By Saul McLeodupdated Attachment is a deep and enduring emotional bond that connects one person to another across time and space Ainsworth; Bowlby Attachment does not have to be reciprocal.

One person may have an attachment to an individual which is not shared. Attachment is characterized by specific behaviors in children, such as seeking proximity to the attachment figure when upset or threatened Bowlby, Such behavior appears universal across cultures.

Attachment theory explains how the parent-child relationship emerges and influences subsequent development. Attachment theory in psychology originates with the seminal work of John Bowlby Specifically, it shaped his belief about the link between early infant separations with the mother and later maladjustment, and led Bowlby to formulate his attachment theory.

John Bowlbyworking alongside James Robertson observed that children experienced intense distress when separated from their mothers.

The behavioral theory of attachment stated that the child becomes attached to the mother because she fed the infant. This is illustrated in the work of Lorenz and Harlow Most researchers believe that attachment develops through a series of stages.

Stages of Attachment Rudolph Schaffer and Peggy Emerson studied 60 babies at monthly intervals for the first 18 months of life this is known as a longitudinal study. The children were all studied in their own home, and a regular pattern was identified in the development of attachment.

The babies were visited monthly for approximately one year, their interactions with their carers were observed, and carers were interviewed. A diary was kept by the mother to examine the evidence for the development of attachment. Three measures were recorded: Stranger Anxiety - response to the arrival of a stranger.

Psychology and person development theorists

Separation Anxiety - distress level when separated from a carer, the degree of comfort needed on return. Social Referencing - the degree a child looks at their carer to check how they should respond to something new secure base. Asocial 0 - 6 weeks Very young infants are asocial in that many kinds of stimuli, both social and non-social, produce a favorable reaction, such as a smile.

Indiscriminate Attachments 6 weeks to 7 months Infants indiscriminately enjoy human company, and most babies respond equally to any caregiver. They get upset when an individual ceases to interact with them.Humanistic psychology is a psychological perspective that rose to prominence in the midth century in answer to the limitations of Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic theory and B.

F.

Further Reading

Skinner's behaviorism. With its roots running from Socrates through the Renaissance, this approach emphasizes individuals' inherent drive towards self-actualization, the process of realizing and expressing one's own.

Humanistic psychology is a perspective that emphasizes looking at the whole individual and stresses concepts such as free will, self-efficacy, and self-actualization.

Rather than concentrating on dysfunction, humanistic psychology strives to help people fulfill their potential and maximize their well-being.

STAGES OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT

The formation of a system of underlying assumptions about standards and principles that govern moral decisions. Moral development involves the formation of a system of values on which to base decisions concerning "right" and "wrong, " or "good" and "bad."fi Values are underlying assumptions about standards that govern moral decisions.

Biography. Erik Erikson was born in Frankfurt, Germany, on June 15, There is a little mystery about his heritage: His biological father was an unnamed Danish man who abandoned Erik's mother before he was born.

Biography. Erik Erikson was born in Frankfurt, Germany, on June 15, There is a little mystery about his heritage: His biological father was an unnamed Danish man who abandoned Erik's mother before he was born.

Humanistic psychology is a psychological perspective that rose to prominence in the midth century in answer to the limitations of Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic theory and B.

F. Skinner's behaviorism. With its roots running from Socrates through the Renaissance, this approach emphasizes individuals' inherent drive towards self-actualization, the process of realizing and expressing one's own.

Questions and Answers for Psychology Students