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During the burning of the Royal Palace, a great fire ravaged the Library of Ashurbanipal where the scholar King Ashurbanipal had amassed a great number of texts and tablets from various countries. Modern historians believe the library may have contained a considerable number of texts written on such mediums as leather scrolls, wax boards, and possibly papyri — all of them vulnerable to fire.
However, the considerable number of clay cuneiform tablets became partially baked. As recounted in Jeremiah 36, Jeremiah's scroll was read before Jehoiakim, King of Judah, in the presence of important officials; King Jehoiakim destroyed the scroll in a fire, and then sought to have Jeremiah arrested.
The same story is also mentioned by Cicero. Democritus' writings by Plato [ edit ] The philosopher Plato is said to have greatly disliked fellow-philosopher Democritus and wanted all of Democritus' books burned. Aristoxenus in his Historical Notes affirms that "Plato wished to burn all the writings of Democritus that he could collect" .
In his own lifetime, Plato was not in a position to destroy all copies of his rival's writings, but Plato's purpose was largely achieved through the choices made by scribes in later Classical times. Plato's own writings were frequently copied, and unlike nearly all of his philosophical contemporariesPlato's entire work is believed to have survived intact for over 2, years.
Various accounts attribute it to an accident, a drunken revelry by Alexander's soldiers, or a deliberate act of revenge for the burning of the Acropolis of Athens by the Achaemenid army centuries before.
There was evidently no deliberate targeting of books and written material, but — though not mentioned in Greek and Latin accounts — such destruction did result from the setting on fire of palaces made mostly of highly combustible cedar wood. The Book of Arda Wiraza Zoroastrian work composed in the 3rd or 4th century CE, mentions the destruction of Royal Archives and of "all the Avesta Zoroastrian scriptures and Zend commentraries " which were "written with gold ink upon prepared cow-skins".
For this act of sacrilege, Alexander's name was regularly accompanied in Middle Persian Zoroastrian texts by the appelation Gujastak "the Damned", or "the Evil". As late as the 10th century CE, the native Iranian writer Biruniin his The Chronology of Ancient Nationsmentioned regretfully the loss of historiographical sources due to that burning.
The fall of Persepolis paradoxically contributed to the preservation of the Achaemenid administrative archives that might have been lost due to passage of time and natural and man-made causes.
Burning of books and burying of scholars During the Warring States PeriodChina was divided into various states - each of which had its own historians, writing over centuries their version of the history of their state and its relations with neighbors and rivals.
Following Qin 's conquest of all the others, Emperor Qin Shi Huang - on the advice of his minister Li Si - ordered the burning of all philosophy books and history books from states other than Qin — beginning in BC. This was followed by the live burial of a large number of intellectuals who did not comply with the state dogma.
Li Si is reported to have said: With the exception of the academics whose duty includes possessing books, if anyone under heaven has copies of the Shi Jingthe Classic of Historyor the writings of the hundred schools of philosophythey shall deliver them [the books] to the governor or the commandant for burning.
Anyone who dares to discuss the Shi Jing or the Classic of History shall be publicly executed. Anyone who uses history to criticize the present shall have his family executed. Any official who sees the violations but fails to report them is equally guilty. Anyone who has failed to burn the books after thirty days of this announcement shall be subjected to tattooing and be sent to build the Great Wall.
The books that have exemption are those on medicine, divinationagriculture and forestry. Those who have interest in laws shall instead study from officials.
The imperial palace and state archives were burned, destroying many of the remaining written records that had been spared by the father. Several other large book burnings also occurred in Chinese history.
Aeneid unsuccessfully ordered by Virgil [ edit ] In 17 BC, Virgil died and in his will ordered that his masterpiece, the Aeneidbe burned, as it was a draft and not a final version.
However, his friends disobeyed him and released the epic poem after editing it themselves. The book's praise of Brutus and Cassiuswho had assassinated Julius Caesarwas considered an offence under the lex majestatis.Gaius Julius Caesar was born 12 July BCE (though some cite as his birth year).
His father, also Gaius Julius Caesar, was a Praetor who governed the province of Asia and his mother, Aurelia Cotta, was of noble birth. The Blog of Scott Aaronson If you take just one piece of information from this blog: Quantum computers would not solve hard search problems instantaneously by simply trying all the possible solutions at once.
Start studying English ii. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. The constitutional reforms of Julius Caesar were a series of laws pertaining to the Constitution of the Roman Republic enacted between 49 and 44 BC, during Caesar's dictatorship.
Caesar died in 44 BC before the implications of his constitutional actions could be realized. The Heart of Change: Julius Caesar and the End of the Roman Republic Michael Lorenzen. Organizations change through time.
This was certainly true of the historical Roman Republic as it changed into the Roman Empire. Caught in that sensual music all neglect Monuments of unageing intellect. William Butler Yeats (–), "Sailing to Byzantium". Rome casts a long shadow. I am writing in the Latin alphabet. I am using the Roman calendar, with its names of the months.